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3. Birrenbach T, Bocker U. Inflammatory bowel disease and smoking: a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic implications. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004;10:848-859. [PubMed]


※pathophysiology: 病態生理学。病気で見られる機能上の乱れについて扱う(構造上の変化ではなく)

4. Virdis A, Giannarelli C, Neves MF, Taddei S, Ghiadoni L. Cigarette smoking and hypertension. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:2518-2525. [PubMed]


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6. Glantz SA, Parmley WW. Passive smoking and heart disease. Mechanisms and risk. JAMA. 1995;273:1047-1053. [PubMed]


7. Glantz SA, Parmley WW. Passive and active smoking. A problem for adults. Circulation. 1996;94:596-598. [PubMed]


8. van der Heide F, Dijkstra A, Weersma RK, Albersnagel FA, van der Logt EM, Faber KN, Sluiter WJ, Kleibeuker JH, Dijkstra G. Effects of active and passive smoking on disease course of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:1199-1207. [PubMed]


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15. Groschwitz KR, Ahrens R, Osterfeld H, Gurish MF, Han X, Abrink M, Finkelman FD, Pejler G, Hogan SP. Mast cells regulate homeostatic intestinal epithelial migration and barrier function by a chymase/Mcpt4-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106:22381-22386. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

マスト細胞はカイメース/Mcpt4(mast cell protease 4)依存的なメカニズムにより、ホメオスタティックな腸上皮遊走とバリア機能を調節する

※chymase: カイメースまたはキマーゼ。マスト細胞のセリンプロテアーゼで、好塩基球ではMcpt8

16. Yu LC. The epithelial gatekeeper against food allergy. Pediatr Neonatol. 2009;50:247-254. [PubMed]


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18. Cani PD, Possemiers S, Van de Wiele T, Guiot Y, Everard A, Rottier O, Geurts L, Naslain D, Neyrinck A, Lambert DM, et al. Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability. Gut. 2009;58:1091-1103. [PMC free article] [PubMed]


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25. Husebye E. The pathogenesis of gastrointestinal bacterial overgrowth. Chemotherapy. 2005;51 Suppl 1:1-22. [PubMed]


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28. Ma TY, Iwamoto GK, Hoa NT, Akotia V, Pedram A, Boivin MA, Said HM. TNF-alpha-induced increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability requires NF-kappa B activation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;286:G367-G376. [PubMed]


29. Round JL, O’Connell RM, Mazmanian SK. Coordination of tolerogenic immune responses by the commensal microbiota. J Autoimmun. 2010;34:J220-J225. [PMC free article] [PubMed]


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31. Li SY, Gomelsky M, Duan J, Zhang Z, Gomelsky L, Zhang X, Epstein PN, Ren J. Overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) transgene prevents acetaldehyde-induced cell injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: role of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11244-11252. [PubMed]


32. Kleessen B, Hartmann L, Blaut M. Fructans in the diet cause alterations of intestinal mucosal architecture, released mucins and mucosa-associated bifidobacteria in gnotobiotic rats. Br J Nutr. 2003;89:597-606. [PubMed]


※fructan (fructosan): フルクトースから成る多糖類。イヌリンなど

※gnotobiotic: ノトバイオート(gnotobiote)の。限られた種類の微生物しかいない、もしくは病原体など特定の微生物がいないように隔離飼育された動物。gnosis「(グ)ノーシス」はギリシャ語で「知識、認知」の意

33. Karczewski J, Troost FJ, Konings I, Dekker J, Kleerebezem M, Brummer RJ, Wells JM. Regulation of human epithelial tight junction proteins by Lactobacillus plantarum in vivo and protective effects on the epithelial barrier. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G851-G859. [PubMed]


※Lactobacillus: 乳酸菌桿菌属。微好気性または嫌気性。グラム陽性、胞子非形成。正常時にはバクテロサイジン(bacteriocidin, 殺菌素)を産生して病原菌を抑制する

34. Grimoud J, Durand H, de Souza S, Monsan P, Ouarne F, Theodorou V, Roques C. In vitro screening of probiotics and synbiotics according to anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;144:42-50. [PubMed]


35. Bruzzese E, Canani RB, De Marco G, Guarino A. Microflora in inflammatory bowel diseases: a pediatric perspective. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38:S91-S93. [PubMed]


36. Sartor RB. Therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microflora in inflammatory bowel diseases: antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1620-1633. [PubMed]


※probiotics: 健康に有益な微生物。probiotic 「共生の」

※prebiotics: 人体に有用な微生物を増やす、または有害な微生物を抑制する食品。prebiotic 「生物以前の、生命の起源の前駆物に関する」

37. Miller LM, Foster WM, Dambach DM, Doebler D, McKinnon M, Killar L, Longphre M. A murine model of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation using intranasally administered smoke-conditioned medium. Exp Lung Res. 2002;28:435-455. [PubMed]


※conditioned medium: ならし培地。培養細胞自身もしくは支持細胞に改良させた培地。上記のsmoke-は状態を調節した(conditioned)ぐらいの意味か

38. Yan X, Huang Y, Wang H, Du M, Hess BW, Ford SP, Nathanielsz PW, Zhu MJ. Maternal obesity induces sustained inflammation in both fetal and offspring large intestine of sheep. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:1513-1522. [PMC free article] [PubMed]


39. Zhu MJ, Du M, Hess BW, Means WJ, Nathanielsz PW, Ford SP. Maternal nutrient restriction upregulates growth signaling pathways in the cotyledonary artery of cow placentomes. Placenta. 2007;28:361-368. [PubMed]


※cotyledon: [植物]子葉。[解剖]胎盤分葉。胎盤の母体面において溝(胎盤中隔)によって分けられた部分

40. Zhu MJ, Du M, Hess BW, Nathanielsz PW, Ford SP. Periconceptional nutrient restriction in the ewe alters MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathways and vascularity in the placentome. Placenta. 2007;28:1192-1199. [PubMed]


※periconceptional: 受胎前後の。conception 「概念、着想、着床」 conceive 「思いつく、身ごもる」 -cipere (ラテン語 capere「取る」の連結形)」

※MAPK: ERK、p38、JNKの3つがある

41. Zhu MJ, Ford SP, Means WJ, Hess BW, Nathanielsz PW, Du M. Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring. J Physiol. 2006;575:241-250. [PMC free article] [PubMed]


42. Zhu MJ, Ford SP, Nathanielsz PW, Du M. Effect of maternal nutrient restriction in sheep on the development of fetal skeletal muscle. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:1968-1973. [PubMed]


43. Zhu MJ, Han B, Tong J, Ma C, Kimzey JM, Underwood KR, Xiao Y, Hess BW, Ford SP, Nathanielsz PW, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways are down regulated and skeletal muscle development impaired in fetuses of obese, over-nourished sheep. J Physiol. 2008;586:2651-2664. [PMC free article] [PubMed]


※futus: 妊娠三ヶ月目以降の胎児。それ以前はembryo。民法上では受胎後から出生までを全てunborn child(胎児)と呼ぶ

44. Arslan G, Atasever T, Cindoruk M, Yildirim IS. (51)CrEDTA colonic permeability and therapy response in patients with ulcerative colitis. Nucl Med Commun. 2001;22:997-1001. [PubMed]


45. McGilligan VE, Wallace JM, Heavey PM, Ridley DL, Rowland IR. The effect of nicotine in vitro on the integrity of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:1593-1598. [PubMed]


46. Prytz H, Benoni C, Tagesson C. Does smoking tighten the gut? Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989;24:1084-1088. [PubMed]


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※retinal: 網膜、レチナール (両者は発音が違うので注意)

48. Suits MD, Jaffer N, Jia Z. Structure of the Escherichia coli O157: H7 heme oxygenase ChuS in complex with heme and enzymatic inactivation by mutation of the heme coordinating residue His-193. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36776-36782. [PubMed]


※O157:H7: O157のH7株

※heme oxygenase: ヘムオキシゲナーゼ。ヘムと酸素分子と電子供与体から、ビリルビン、CO、Fe3+、3 H2Oを生成する反応を触媒する

※heme coordinating residue His-193: http://www.jbc.org/content/281/48/36776/F1.expansion.html

49. Tharappel JC, Cholewa J, Espandiari P, Spear BT, Gairola CG, Glauert HP. Effects of cigarette smoke on the activation of oxidative stress-related transcription factors in female A/J mouse lung. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73:1288-1297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]


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55. Gaboriau-Routhiau V, Rakotobe S, Lecuyer E, Mulder I, Lan A, Bridonneau C, Rochet V, Pisi A, De Paepe M, Brandi G, et al. The key role of segmented filamentous bacteria in the coordinated maturation of gut helper T cell responses. Immunity. 2009;31:677-689. [PubMed]


56. Salzman NH, de Jong H, Paterson Y, Harmsen HJ, Welling GW, Bos NA. Analysis of 16S libraries of mouse gastrointestinal microflora reveals a large new group of mouse intestinal bacteria. Microbiology. 2002;148:3651-3660. [PubMed]


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58. Cani PD, Bibiloni R, Knauf C, Waget A, Neyrinck AM, Delzenne NM, Burcelin R. Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Diabetes. 2008;57:1470-1481. [PubMed]


※endotoxemia: エンドトキシン(内毒素)血症。血中にエンドトキシン(LPS)が見つかる状態。明らかな感染巣が存在する外因性エンドトキシン血症と、防御能の低下や高脂肪食などが引き起こす内因性もしくは代謝的エンドトキシン血症(metabolic endotoxemia)がある

59. Barman M, Unold D, Shifley K, Amir E, Hung K, Bos N, Salzman N. Enteric salmonellosis disrupts the microbial ecology of the murine gastrointestinal tract. Infect Immun. 2008;76:907-915. [PMC free article] [PubMed]


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